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Ahupua'a two grants were awarded. Grant No. 1544 (total of 487.5 acres) was purchased by M & K <br /> Makanoanoa in 1855, and includes a large portion of the current study area. The land uses associated with <br /> Makanoanoa or Poepoe's grant were not discovered. <br /> Puehuehu Ahupua`a: Foreign Influences and the Plantation Era <br /> In 1873 the English born Robert Robson Hind moved to Kohala from Maui to invest in the booming sugar <br /> industry. He purchased land in the flat plains of Puehuehu west of Kohala Sugar Company, although <br /> rainfall was less than ideal (Schweitzer 2003), and established the Union Mill. Months prior to formal <br /> opening in 1874, a fire broke out destroying the mill. The mill (Figure 13) was rebuilt just in time to <br /> harvest and process its first crops. Again in 1878, another fire broke out, destroying the rebuilt mill. Shortly <br /> thereafter, Hind sold the mill to James Renton, Daniel Vida, Theo H. Davies & Co., and the brothers <br /> Clement (Cecil) and Ralph Sneyd Kytmersley (Schweitzer 2003). These independent growers organized <br /> themselves and started the Puehuehu Plantation Company, and were later joined by the Puehuehu <br /> Agricultural company in 1910. In 1905, Henry Renton took over management of the mill. Most of the mills <br /> 280 employees were of Japanese descent. During this time the mill was harvesting 1,260 acres of cultivated <br /> sugar. In 1932, the Union Mill was joined with the Niuli`i Mill and Plantation, under Robert Lindsey. At its <br /> peak the mill cultivated three thousand acres. only one -fifth of which was leased (Schweitzer 2003). The <br /> Union Mill was purchased by the Kohala Mill in 1937, the cane harvested from the former Union Mill <br /> planting fields was then transferred to Hala`ula for processing . <br /> During the 1930s, the Union Mill had seven camps consisting of approximately 100 houses that the <br /> immigrant workers lived in surrounding the Mill (Schweitzer 2003). These camps included the New Camp, <br /> Old Camp, Japanese Camp, Puerto Rican Camp, and Haole Camp. Plantations would build and manage <br /> stores that would supply carried foods, household goods, and various supplies used by the plantation <br /> workers. The Chai Chee Store was operated by Union Mill from 1929 to 1935, Kenichi Hayashi took over <br /> and remained open until 1945 (Stevenson 1977). In 1933, the Union Market was opened by Bushita Higa to <br /> service the camps surrounding the mill (this structure still remains, east down the Highway from the current <br /> study property). Nakahara store, W.O. Kim Store, and a pharmacy were located at Union Mill. There was a <br /> swimming hole in a pasture near Union Mill as well (located makai of the cut study property). A large <br /> park at Union Mill (located east of the current study property), was maintained by the plantation and used <br /> for recreation purposes for the plantation workers and their families. There was a movie theater near Union <br /> Mill. One of six places in Kohala that had a Portuguese bread oven is located in a pasture blow Union Mill <br /> subdivision (Stevenson 1977). Pratt Road, which runs from the lower section of `Upolu to Niuli`i, was the <br /> main cane hauling road used by the plantations. <br /> Figure 13. One of the earliest known photographs of Union Mill (from Schweitzer 2003:107). <br /> 18 <br />